Denmark

Book Hotel

Book Rental Car

Cheap Flights

History

Language

Maps

Places of Interest
  Aalborg Carnival
  Dyrehavsbakken
  Koldinghus
  Kronborg Castle
  Legoland Billund
  Little Mermaid statue
  Odense Zoo
  Randers Tropical Zoo
  The Old Town, Århus
  Tivoli Friheden
  Tivoli Gardens
  More Danish Attractions

Recipes

Towns and Cities
  Aalborg
  Århus
  Copenhagen
  Elsinore
  Esbjerg
  Horsens
  Kolding
  Odense
  Randers
  Vejle
  Viborg
  More Danish Cities

Travel Guides

Weather

Links
   Danish Recipes
   Denmark Country Information
   Travel Downloads
   Travel eBooks
   Travel Magazines
   More Links


 















































 
Travel Guide 2   >   Europe   >   Denmark   >   History

   
 

Danish History


Denmark has been inhabited for a very long time. There is evidence of human habitation at least as long ago as 12500 BCE, and evidence of agriculture since 3900 BCE.

By the time of the Nordic Bronze Age (1800 BCE to 600 BCE), burial mounds began to appear in Denmark. Among the finds from this period are many lurs (a type of horn-like musical instrument), and the Trundholm sun chariot (Danish: Solvognen) - a bronze statue of a horse pulling a large bronze disc.

The Iron Age in Denmark is generally divided into three periods: the Pre-Roman Iron Age (approximately 500 BCE to 1 AD), the Roman Iron Age (approximately 1 AD to 400 AD), and the Germanic Iron Age (400 AD to 800 AD). Archaeological evidence shows that native people gradually migrated South, and the first Danish people came to Denmark during the Roman Iron Age (previously Jutland and many Danish islands had been inhabited by Jutes, who in turn later migrated to southern Britain).

During the 8th to 10th centuries, people from Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway) were known as the Vikings. During this period, Viking explorers sailing West reached Iceland, Greenland, and Canada ("Vinland"). Meanwhile, other groups of Vikings explorered, trade with, raided, and settled in many other parts of Europe, and beyond - including conquering parts of England ("Danelaw"), parts of Ireland, and parts of France (Normandy).

Vikings

The Danes were united and Christianized in about 965 by King Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson (c. 935 to c. 986; King of Denmark c. 958 to c. 986 ; King of Norway c. 970 to 986). Eventually, King Cnut the Great (c 985 to 1035) rules a North Sea empire that included Denmark, Norway, England, and even parts of Sweden. By the high and late Middle Ages, the Danish kingdom included not only Denmark itself, but also Skåneland (a region which is today the three southwestern provinces of Sweden), Danish Estonia, and the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein (most of which today fall within the German state of Schleswig-Holstein).

In 1397, Queen Margaret I became ruler of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden - a personal union, known as the Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/DanishSwedish: Kalmarunionen). The next century plus of Scandinavian history is dominated by the history of the Kalmar Union, with Sweden repeatedly breaking away, and then being reconquered. The Kalmar Union effectively ended in 1523, when the Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered Stockholm, although Denmark did launch to subsequent attempts, ultimately unsuccessfully, to regain control over Sweden - the Northern Seven Years War (1563 to 1570), and the Kalmar War (1611 to 1613).

Following the Kalmar War, King Christian IV of Denmark, using monies collected from a war indemnity paid by Sweden, built several new towns and cities. including Christiania (Oslo) in Norway after the original city of Olso burnt down, Christiansand (today Kristiansand in Norway), Christianstad (today Kristianstad in Sweden) Christianshavn (today a suburb of Copenhagen, and, as a planned rival to Hamburg, Lykstad (today Gl¨ckstadt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). Additionally, the Danish East India Company (Danish: Dansk Østindisk Kompagni) was founded, with the intention of establishing trade with India and colonizing Sri Lanka. Ultimately the Danish empire would ultimately consist of a number of small colonies and trading posts on the Indian coast (sold to Britain in 1839 to 1845), the Nicobar Islands (sold to Britain in 1868), a number of trading stations and forts in West Africa known as the "Danish Gold Coast" (sold to Britain in 1850), and the Danish West Indies (sold to the United States in 1917, and today known as the US Virgin Islands), as well Norway (lost to Sweden in 1814), Iceland (an independent ingdom in personal union with Denmark from 1918, and a fully independent republic from 1944), as well as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Denmark itself.

Denmark had adopted Lutheranism in 1536. There was a brief civil war, the Count's Feud (Danish: : Grevens Fejde), that took place between 1534 and 1536, during this transition, which was to have important consequences later. During the war, Swedish troops were invited into Scania (the southernmost province of Skåneland) at the Danish King's invitation, to surpress his rebellious subjects. However, although the Swedes did hand back the territory to Denmark initially, this whetted Sweden's appetite to conquer the territory, and ultimately they would do so (in 1658).

King Christian IV also became involved in the Third Years War (1618 to 1648). During the war, King Christian IV tried to make Denmark leader of the Lutheran states in Germany, but suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Lutter (1626), and was forced to withdraw from the war. Denmark then suffered plague, and series of disastrous military defeats to Sweden - including the loss of Skåneland, Gotland (a Baltic Sea island), Bornholm (another Baltic island), and several provinces of Norway - and narrowly escaped losing its independence completely.

Denmark subsequently tried and failed to regain Skåneland in the Scanian War (1675 to 1679), but did manage to regain control parts of Schleswig and Holstein in southern Jutland as a result of the Great Northern War (1700 to 1721).

During the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark initially tried to pursue a policy of neutrality between Britain and France, and joined the League of Armed Neutrality alongside Russia, Sweden, and Prussia. The British however considered this to be a hostile act (as members of the League continued to trade with France), and attacked Copenhagen and the Danish fleet in 1801 and 1807.

Subsequently, the Denmark-Norway fought a naval war with the British ("The Gunboat War") from 1807 to 1814. As a result of this war, Denmark-Norway went bankrupt in 1813. At the subsequent Treaty of Kiel (1814), Denmark lost Norway to Sweden, and Heligoland (an island in the North Sea) to Britain.

Denmark became a constitutional monarchy in 1849, and as mentioned previously sold its colonies in Africa (the Danish Gold Coast) and India to Britain in the 1850s and 1868s. One traumatic event during this period, was the loss of Schleswig and Holstein in 1864, following war with Prussia and Austria in the Second War of Schleswig (Danish: 2. Slesvigske Krig; German: Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg). After the Second War of Schleswig, Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality. It was able to main its neutral status during World War 1.

After World War 1, Iceland was granted home rule, and became an independent kingdom in personal union with Denmark. Additionally, following a plebiscite, Northern Schleswig was regained by Denmark from Germany.

Immediately prior to World War II, Denmark was still neutral, and had in fact signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939. Nevertheless, German troops invaded and occupied the country on April 9th 1940 after overcoming only minimal military resistance. Until 1943, the occupation was relatively lenient, and there was a degree of cooperation between the Danish government and the German occupiers. However there was an armed resistance movement from 1943 onwards, and additionally, thanks to the efforts of the Danish resistance, the vast majority of Danish Jews survived the war.

During World War II, Iceland severed links with Denmark, and Denmark was separated from the Faroe Islands and Greenland (occupied by the British and Americans). After the war, there was a period of constitutional reform - the Faroe Islands gained home rule in 1948 - Greenland became an integral part of Denmark in 1953, and gained home rule in 1979, but was awarded self determination in 2009.

Denmark also became a founder member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), the United Nations, and NATO (abandoning its previous policy of neutrality). In 1973, after a referendum, Denmark joined the European Economic Community (today known as the European Union).

Below are some books about the history of Denmark:


Comments about Danish History


Please share your comments about the history of Denmark:

   


Books about Danish History


Disclosure: Products details and descriptions provided by Amazon.com. Our company may receive a payment if you purchase products from them after following a link from this website.

Danish Modern Furniture, 1930-2016: The Rise, Decline and Re-emergence of a Cultural Market Category (554) (Studies in History and Social Sciences)

By Per H. Hansen

University Press of Southern Denmark
Released: February 1st, 2018
Hardcover (522 pages)

Danish Modern Furniture, 1930-2016: The Rise, Decline and Re-emergence of a Cultural Market Category (554) (Studies in History and Social Sciences)
Lowest New Price: $53.00*
In Stock.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
Danish Modern Furniture, 1930-2016: The Rise, Decline and Re-emergence of a Cultural Market Category (554) (Studies in History and Social Sciences)
  • Manufacturer: University Press of Southern Denmark
  • Brand: University Press of Southern Denmark
  • ISBN: 8776749037
  • EAN: 9788776749033
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 522
  • Author: Per H. Hansen
  • Publication Date: February 1st, 2018
  • Release Date: February 1st, 2018
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.0 Inches by 6.0 Inches by 2.0 Inches
  • Weight: 4.74434787824 Pounds
Click here for more information

How to Be Danish: A Journey to the Cultural Heart of Denmark

By Patrick Kingsley

Atria Books/Marble Arch Press
Released: February 4th, 2014
Hardcover (192 pages)

How to Be Danish: A Journey to the Cultural Heart of Denmark
List Price: $20.00*
Lowest New Price: $16.89*
In Stock.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
How to Be Danish: A Journey to the Cultural Heart of Denmark
  • Manufacturer: Atria Books/Marble Arch Press
  • Brand: Atria Books/Marble Arch Press
  • ISBN: 1476755485
  • EAN: 9781476755489
  • PartNumber: 9781476755489
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Edition: First Edition
  • Number of Pages: 192
  • Author: Patrick Kingsley
  • Publication Date: February 4th, 2014
  • Release Date: February 4th, 2014
Physical Description:
  • Size: 8.375 Inches by 5.5 Inches by 0.8 Inches
  • Weight: 0.6 Pounds
Features:
  • Orders are despatched from our UK warehouse next working day.
Click here for more information

Danish, But Not Lutheran: The Impact of Mormonism on Danish Cultural Identity, 1850–1920

By Julie K. Allen

University of Utah Press
Released: May 30th, 2017
Hardcover (316 pages)

Danish, But Not Lutheran: The Impact of Mormonism on Danish Cultural Identity, 1850–1920
Lowest New Price: $30.00*
In Stock.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
Danish, But Not Lutheran: The Impact of Mormonism on Danish Cultural Identity, 1850–1920
  • Manufacturer: University of Utah Press
  • Brand: University of Utah Press
  • ISBNs: 9781607815457, 1607815451
  • EAN: 9781607815457
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 316
  • Author: Julie K. Allen
  • Publication Date: May 30th, 2017
  • Release Date: May 30th, 2017
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.0 Inches by 6.0 Inches by 1.0 Inches
Click here for more information

The Danish History, Books I-IX

By Saxo Grammaticus

Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Released: November 29th, 2017
Paperback (152 pages)

The Danish History, Books I-IX
Lowest New Price: $8.99*
In Stock.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Danish History, Books I-IX
  • Manufacturer: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Brand: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • ISBN: 198121707X
  • EAN: 9781981217076
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Number of Pages: 152
  • Author: Saxo Grammaticus
  • Publication Date: November 29th, 2017
  • Release Date: November 29th, 2017
Physical Description:
  • Size: 11.0 Inches by 8.5 Inches by 0.35 Inches
  • Weight: 0.81 Pounds
Click here for more information

Darkness over Denmark: The Danish resistance and the rescue of the Jews

By Ellen Levine

Scholastic Inc
Paperback (164 pages)

Darkness over Denmark: The Danish resistance and the rescue of the Jews
Lowest New Price: $34.50*
In Stock.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
Darkness over Denmark: The Danish resistance and the rescue of the Jews
  • Manufacturer: Scholastic Inc
  • ISBN: 0439296293
  • EAN: 9780439296298
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Number of Pages: 164
  • Author: Ellen Levine
Physical Description:
  • Weight: 1.0 Pounds
Click here for more information

The Heroic Legends of Denmark; Translated From the Danish in Collaboration With the Author

By Olrik Axel

Wentworth Press
Released: February 28th, 2019
Hardcover (548 pages)

The Heroic Legends of Denmark; Translated From the Danish in Collaboration With the Author
Lowest New Price: $29.95*
Available to ship in 1-2 days.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Heroic Legends of Denmark; Translated From the Danish in Collaboration With the Author
  • Manufacturer: Wentworth Press
  • Brand: Wentworth Press
  • ISBN: 0526319267
  • EAN: 9780526319268
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 548
  • Author: Olrik Axel
  • Publication Date: February 28th, 2019
  • Release Date: February 28th, 2019
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.21258 Inches by 6.14172 Inches by 1.1873992 Inches
  • Weight: 2.07014064018 Pounds
Click here for more information

Denmark - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture (104)

By Mark Salmon

Kuperard
Released: June 24th, 2019
Paperback (168 pages)

Denmark - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture (104)
List Price: $11.99*
Lowest New Price: $10.79*
In Stock.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
Denmark - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture (104)
  • Manufacturer: Kuperard
  • Brand: Kuperard
  • ISBN: 1857338847
  • EAN: 9781857338843
  • PartNumber: 33994106
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Format: Illustrated
  • Edition: Illustrated
  • Number of Pages: 168
  • Authors: Mark Salmon, Culture Smart!
  • Publication Date: June 24th, 2019
  • Release Date: June 24th, 2019
Physical Description:
  • Size: 6.75 Inches by 4.25 Inches by 0.5 Inches
  • Weight: 0.45 Pounds
Click here for more information

The Anatomy of Denmark: Archaeology and History from the Ice Age to AD 2000

By Klavs Randsborg

Brand: Bristol Classical Press
Released: September 14th, 2009
Paperback (192 pages)

The Anatomy of Denmark: Archaeology and History from the Ice Age to AD 2000
Lowest New Price: $30.52*
In stock. Usually ships within 3 to 4 days.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Anatomy of Denmark: Archaeology and History from the Ice Age to AD 2000
  • Manufacturer: Bristol Classical Press
  • Brand: Brand: Bristol Classical Press
  • ISBN: 0715638424
  • EAN: 9780715638422
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Number of Pages: 192
  • Author: Klavs Randsborg
  • Publication Date: September 14th, 2009
  • Release Date: September 14th, 2009
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.2098241 Inches by 6.14 Inches by 0.3988181 Inches
  • Weight: 0.59965735264 Pounds
Features:
  • Used Book in Good Condition
Click here for more information

SOE in Denmark: The Special Operations Executive’s Danish Section in WW2

Frontline Books
Released: August 26th, 2021
Hardcover (208 pages)

SOE in Denmark: The Special Operations Executive’s Danish Section in WW2
List Price: $49.95*
Lowest New Price: $30.01*
In Stock.*
*(As of 20:02 Pacific 24 Sep 2021 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
SOE in Denmark: The Special Operations Executive’s Danish Section in WW2
  • Manufacturer: Frontline Books
  • ISBN: 1399015044
  • EAN: 9781399015042
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 208
  • Publication Date: August 26th, 2021
  • Release Date: August 26th, 2021
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.25 Inches by 6.5 Inches by 1.0 Inches
  • Weight: 1.22136093148 Pounds
Click here for more information


 
 
 

 
 
Note: Our company does NOT provide travel, vacation, hotel, car rental services or associated products or services. Any links (including but not limited to banners, text links, or search forms) to such items on this web site are adverts from third parties. Sorry we can NOT answer questions about these types of products or services.

Unless specifically noted on the page in question, our company is NOT associated with attractions or places of interest that may be described on this website. In such cases, we have often provided links to the official sites where possible, or other third party sites containing useful information, purely as a courtesy and for informational purposes only.

All information about attractions, places of interest, travel destinations, travel services, etc., was believed to be correct at the time it was prepared, but may be change at any time. Readers are advised to check with their travel agent, travel provider, or the attraction operator, for current information.


Copyright © 2007-2021, Answers 2000 Limited

CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE COMES FROM AMAZON SERVICES LLC. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.
CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE,COMES FROM AMAZON EU S. r.l. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.

Disclosure: Our company's websites' content (including this website's content) includes advertisements for our own company's websites, products, and services, and for other organization's websites, products, and services. In the case of links to other organization's websites, our company may receive a payment, (1) if you purchase products or services, or (2) if you sign-up for third party offers, after following links from this website. Unless specifically otherwise stated, information about other organization's products and services, is based on information provided by that organization, the product/service vendor, and/or publicly available information - and should not be taken to mean that we have used the product/service in question. Additionally, our company's websites contain some adverts which we are paid to display, but whose content is not selected by us, such as Google AdSense ads. For more detailed information, please see Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures

In Association With Amazon.com
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
In Association With Amazon.co.uk
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.co.uk.
As an Amazon Associate, our company earns from qualifying purchases. Amazon, the Amazon logo, Endless, and the Endless logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates.



Our sites use cookies, some of which may already be set on your computer. Use of our site constitutes consent for this. For details, please see Privacy.

Click privacy for information about our company's privacy, data collection and data retention policies, and your rights.

Contact Us   Privacy   Terms of Use   Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures